Keywords

Keywords are words that have a special meaning in the SQL language. Every SQL statement contains one or more keywords. Although SQL is not case-sensitive with respect to keywords, they are generally shown in uppercase letters throughout this documentation for readability purposes.

Reserved words and keywords

Many keywords are also reserved words. You can use reserved words anywhere you use identifiers, as long as you quote them. Below you can find all the words which are reserved or look like.

Non-reserved keywords

Non-reserved keywords have a special meaning in some contexts, but can be used as identifiers in others. You can use non-reserved keywords as aliases.

Keywords Reserved/Non-reserved
ABSOLUTE N
ADD R
ALL R
ALTER R
AND R
ANY R
APPLY N
APPROX_COUNT_DISTINCT N
AS R
ASC R
AUTO N
BEGIN R
BETWEEN R
BIGINT N
BINARY N
BIT N
BREAK R
BY R
CASE R
CAST N
CATCH N
CHAR N
CHARACTER N
CLOSE R
CLUSTERED R
COLLATE R
COMMIT R
COMPUTE R
CONFIGURATION N
CONNECTION N
CONSTRAINT R
CONTAINS R
CONTINUE R
CONVERT R
COUNT N
COUNT_BIG N
CREATE R
CROSS R
CUME_DIST N
CURSOR R
DATABASE R
DATE N
DATETIME N
DATETIME2 N
DATETIMEOFFSET N
DEALLOCATE R
DEC N
DECIMAL N
DECLARE R
DEFAULT R
DELAY N
DELETE R
DELETED N
DENY R
DESC R
DISABLE N
DISTINCT R
DOUBLE_PRECISION N
DROP R
ELSE R
ENABLE N
END R
ESCAPE R
EXCEPT R
EXECUTE R
EXECUTE_ON N
EXISTS R
EXPAND N
EXPLICIT N
FETCH R
FIRST N
FIRST_VALUE N
FLOAT N
FOR R
FORCE N
FORCESCAN N
FORCESEEK N
FOREIGN R
FROM R
FULL R
FUNCTION R
GEOGRAPHY N
GEOMETRY N
GOTO R
GRANT R
GROUP R
GROUPING N
HASH N
HAVING R
HIERARCHYID N
HOLDLOCK R
IDENTITY R
IF R
IMAGE N
IN R
INCLUDE N
INDEX R
INNER R
INSERT R
INSERTED N
INT N
INTEGER N
INTERSECT R
INTO R
IS R
ISOLATION N
JOIN R
KEY R
LAG N
LAST N
LAST_VALUE N
LEAD N
LEFT R
LEVEL N
LIKE R
LOCK_TIMEOUT N
LOOP N
MARK N
MATCHED N
MAX N
MERGE R
MIN N
MONEY N
NATIONAL R
NCHAR N
NEXT N
NOLOCK N
NONCLUSTERED R
NOT R
NOWAIT N
NTEXT N
NULL R
NUMERIC N
NVARCHAR N
OF R
OFF R
OFFSET R
ON R
ONLY N
OPEN R
OPTIMIZE N
OPTION R
OR R
ORDER R
OUT N
OUTER R
OUTPUT N
OVER R
PAGLOCK N
PARTITION N
PATH N
PERCENT_RANK N
PERCENTILE_CONT N
PERCENTILE_DISC N
PHYSICAL N
POOL N
PRIMARY R
PRIMARY_COPY N
PRINT R
PRIOR N
PRIVILEGES N
PROCEDURE R
QUOTEDDEFAULT N
RAISE_ERROR R
RANGE N
RAW N
READCOMMITED N
READCOMMITTEDLOCK N
READONLY N
READPAST N
READUNCOMMITED N
REAL N
REFERENCES R
RELATIVE N
REMOTE N
REMOVE N
REPEATABLEREAD N
REPLICATION R
RETURN R
REVOKE R
RIGHT R
ROLLBACK R
ROW N
ROWCOUNT R
ROWLOCK N
ROWS N
ROWVERSION N
SCHEME R
SECONDARY_COPY N
SELECT R
SERIALIZABLE N
SET R
SETS N
SKIPCACHE N
SMALLDATETIME N
SMALLINT N
SMALLMONEY N
SNAPSHOT N
SOME R
SOURCE N
SPARK_SHUFFLE_PARTITIONS N
SPLIT N
SQL_VARIANT N
STATISTICS R
SWITCH N
TABLE R
TABLOCK N
TABLOCKX N
TARGET N
TEXT N
THEN R
TIME N
TIMESTAMP N
TINYINT N
TO R
TOP R
TRANSACTION R
TRIGGER R
TRUNCATE R
TRY N
UNION R
UNIQUE R
UNIQUEIDENTIFIER N
UNKNOWN N
UPDATE R
UPDLOCK N
USE R
USED N
USING N
VALUES R
VARBINARY N
VARCHAR N
VARYING R
VIEW R
VIEWS N
VIRTUAL N
WAITFOR R
WHEN R
WHERE R
WHILE R
WITH R
XLOCK N
XML N