SELECT Examples

This topic provides examples of using the SELECT statement.

A. Using SELECT to retrieve rows and columns

The following example shows three code examples. This first code example returns all rows (no WHERE clause is specified) and all columns (using the *) from the Product table in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT *
  FROM Production.Product
 ORDER BY Name ASC;

 -- Alternate way.
USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT p.*
  FROM Production.Product AS p
 ORDER BY Name ASC;

This example returns all rows (no WHERE clause is specified), and only a subset of the columns (Name, ProductNumber, ListPrice) from the Product table in the AdventureWorks2012 database. Additionally, a column heading is added.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT Name, ProductNumber, ListPrice AS Price
  FROM Production.Product
 ORDER BY Name ASC;

This example returns only the rows for Product that have a product line of R and that have days to manufacture that is less than 4.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT Name, ProductNumber, ListPrice AS Price
  FROM Production.Product
 WHERE ProductLine = 'R'
   AND DaysToManufacture < 4
 ORDER BY Name ASC;

B. Using SELECT with column headings and calculations

The following examples return all rows from the Product table. The first example returns total sales and the discounts for each product. In the second example, the total revenue is calculated for each product.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT p.Name AS ProductName
     , NonDiscountSales = (OrderQty * UnitPrice)
     , Discounts = ((OrderQty * UnitPrice) * UnitPriceDiscount)
  FROM Production.Product AS p
 INNER
  JOIN Sales.SalesOrderDetail AS sod
    ON p.ProductID = sod.ProductID
 ORDER BY ProductName DESC;

This is the query that calculates the revenue for each product in each sales order.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT 'Total income is', ((OrderQty * UnitPrice) * (1.0 - UnitPriceDiscount)), ' for '
     , p.Name AS ProductName
  FROM Production.Product AS p
 INNER
  JOIN Sales.SalesOrderDetail AS sod
    ON p.ProductID = sod.ProductID
 ORDER BY ProductName ASC;

C. Using DISTINCT with SELECT

The following example uses DISTINCT to prevent the retrieval of duplicate titles.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT DISTINCT JobTitle
  FROM HumanResources.Employee
 ORDER BY JobTitle;

D. Creating tables with SELECT INTO

The following first example creates a temporary table named #Bicycles in tempdb.

USE tempdb;

IF OBJECT_ID (N'#Bicycles',N'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE #Bicycles;

SELECT *
INTO #Bicycles
FROM AdventureWorks2012.Production.Product
WHERE ProductNumber LIKE 'BK%';

This second example creates the permanent table NewProducts.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.NewProducts', 'U') IS NOT NULL
    DROP TABLE dbo.NewProducts;

SELECT * INTO dbo.NewProducts
  FROM Production.Product
 WHERE ListPrice > $25
  AND ListPrice < $100;

E. Using correlated subqueries

The following example shows queries that are semantically equivalent and illustrates the difference between using the EXISTS keyword and the IN keyword. Both are examples of a valid subquery that retrieves one instance of each product name for which the product model is a long sleeve logo jersey, and the ProductModelID numbers match between the Product and ProductModel tables.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT DISTINCT Name
FROM Production.Product AS p
WHERE EXISTS
    (SELECT *
     FROM Production.ProductModel AS pm
     WHERE p.ProductModelID = pm.ProductModelID
           AND pm.Name LIKE 'Long-Sleeve Logo Jersey%');

-- OR

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT DISTINCT Name
FROM Production.Product
WHERE ProductModelID IN
    (SELECT ProductModelID
     FROM Production.ProductModel
     WHERE Name LIKE 'Long-Sleeve Logo Jersey%');

The following example uses IN in a correlated, or repeating, subquery. This is a query that depends on the outer query for its values. The query is executed repeatedly, one time for each row that may be selected by the outer query. This query retrieves one instance of the first and last name of each employee for which the bonus in the SalesPerson table is 5000.00 and for which the employee identification numbers match in the Employee and SalesPerson tables.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT DISTINCT
       p.LastName
     , p.FirstName
  FROM Person.Person AS p
  JOIN HumanResources.Employee AS e
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = p.BusinessEntityID
 WHERE 5000.00 IN (SELECT Bonus
                     FROM Sales.SalesPerson AS sp
                    WHERE e.BusinessEntityID = sp.BusinessEntityID);

The previous subquery in this statement cannot be evaluated independently of the outer query. It requires a value for Employee.EmployeeID, but this value changes as the Querona Database Engine examines different rows in Employee.

A correlated subquery can also be used in the HAVING clause of an outer query. This example finds the product models for which the maximum list price is more than twice the average for the model.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT p1.ProductModelID
  FROM Production.Product AS p1
 GROUP BY p1.ProductModelID
HAVING MAX(p1.ListPrice) >= ALL (SELECT AVG(p2.ListPrice)
                                   FROM Production.Product AS p2
                                  WHERE p1.ProductModelID = p2.ProductModelID);

This example uses two correlated subqueries to find the names of employees who have sold a particular product.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT DISTINCT
       pp.LastName
     , pp.FirstName
  FROM Person.Person pp
  JOIN HumanResources.Employee e
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = pp.BusinessEntityID
 WHERE pp.BusinessEntityID IN (SELECT SalesPersonID
                                 FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader
                                WHERE SalesOrderID IN (SELECT SalesOrderID
                                                         FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
                                                        WHERE ProductID IN (SELECT ProductID
                                                                              FROM Production.Product p
                                                                             WHERE ProductNumber = 'BK-M68B-42')));

F. Using GROUP BY

The following example finds the total of each sales order in the database.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT SalesOrderID, SUM(LineTotal) AS SubTotal
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY SalesOrderID
 ORDER BY SalesOrderID;

Because of the GROUP BY clause, only one row containing the sum of all sales is returned for each sales order.

G. Using GROUP BY with multiple groups

The following example finds the average price and the sum of year-to-date sales, grouped by product ID and special offer ID.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductID
     , SpecialOfferID
     , AVG(UnitPrice) AS [Average Price]
     , SUM(LineTotal) AS SubTotal
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY ProductID, SpecialOfferID
 ORDER BY ProductID;

H. Using GROUP BY and WHERE

The following example puts the results into groups after retrieving only the rows with list prices greater than $1000.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductModelID
     , AVG(ListPrice) AS [Average List Price]
  FROM Production.Product
 WHERE ListPrice > $1000
 GROUP BY ProductModelID
 ORDER BY ProductModelID;

I. Using GROUP BY with an expression

The following example groups by an expression. You can group by an expression if the expression does not include aggregate functions.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT AVG(OrderQty) AS [Average Quantity]
     , NonDiscountSales = (OrderQty * UnitPrice)
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY (OrderQty * UnitPrice)
 ORDER BY (OrderQty * UnitPrice) DESC;

J. Using GROUP BY with ORDER BY

The following example finds the average price of each type of product and orders the results by average price.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductID, AVG(UnitPrice) AS [Average Price]
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 WHERE OrderQty > 10
 GROUP BY ProductID
 ORDER BY AVG(UnitPrice);

K. Using the HAVING clause

The first example that follows shows a HAVING clause with an aggregate function. It groups the rows in the SalesOrderDetail table by product ID and eliminates products whose average order quantities are five or less. The second example shows a HAVING clause without aggregate functions.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductID
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY ProductID
HAVING AVG(OrderQty) > 5
 ORDER BY ProductID;

This query uses the LIKE clause in the HAVING clause.

USE AdventureWorks2012 ;

SELECT SalesOrderID, CarrierTrackingNumber
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY SalesOrderID, CarrierTrackingNumber
HAVING CarrierTrackingNumber LIKE '4BD%'
 ORDER BY SalesOrderID;

L. Using HAVING and GROUP BY

The following example shows using GROUP BY, HAVING, WHERE, and ORDER BY clauses in one SELECT statement. It produces groups and summary values but does so after eliminating the products with prices over $25 and average order quantities under 5. It also organizes the results by ProductID.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductID
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 WHERE UnitPrice < 25.00
 GROUP BY ProductID
HAVING AVG(OrderQty) > 5
 ORDER BY ProductID;

M. Using HAVING with SUM and AVG

The following example groups the SalesOrderDetail table by product ID and includes only those groups of products that have orders totaling more than $1000000.00 and whose average order quantities are less than 3.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductID, AVG(OrderQty) AS AverageQuantity
     , SUM(LineTotal) AS Total
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY ProductID
HAVING SUM(LineTotal) > $1000000.00
   AND AVG(OrderQty) < 3;

To see the products that have had total sales greater than $2000000.00, use this query:

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductID, Total = SUM(LineTotal)
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY ProductID
HAVING SUM(LineTotal) > $2000000.00;

If you want to make sure there are at least one thousand five hundred items involved in the calculations for each product, use HAVING COUNT(*) > 1500 to eliminate the products that return totals for fewer than 1500 items sold. The query looks like this:

USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductID, SUM(LineTotal) AS Total
  FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail
 GROUP BY ProductID
HAVING COUNT(*) > 1500;

N. Using a simple UNION

In the following example, the result set includes the contents of the ProductModelID and Name columns of both the ProductModel and Gloves tables.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

IF OBJECT_ID ('dbo.Gloves', 'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE dbo.Gloves;

-- Create Gloves table.
SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  INTO dbo.Gloves
  FROM Production.ProductModel
 WHERE ProductModelID IN (3, 4);

-- Here is the simple union.
USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  FROM Production.ProductModel
 WHERE ProductModelID NOT IN (3, 4)
 UNION
SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  FROM dbo.Gloves
 ORDER BY Name;

O. Using SELECT INTO with UNION

In the following example, the INTO clause in the second SELECT statement specifies that the table named ProductResults holds the final result set of the union of the designated columns of the ProductModel and Gloves tables. Note that the Gloves table is created in the first SELECT statement.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

IF OBJECT_ID ('dbo.ProductResults', 'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE dbo.ProductResults;

IF OBJECT_ID ('dbo.Gloves', 'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE dbo.Gloves;

-- Create Gloves table.
SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  INTO dbo.Gloves
  FROM Production.ProductModel
 WHERE ProductModelID IN (3, 4);


USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  INTO dbo.ProductResults
  FROM Production.ProductModel
 WHERE ProductModelID NOT IN (3, 4)
 UNION
 SELECT ProductModelID, Name
 FROM dbo.Gloves;

SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  FROM dbo.ProductResults;

P. Using UNION of two SELECT statements with ORDER BY

The order of certain parameters used with the UNION clause is important. The following example shows the incorrect and correct use of UNION in two SELECT statements in which a column is to be renamed in the output.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

IF OBJECT_ID ('dbo.Gloves', 'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE dbo.Gloves;

-- Create Gloves table.
SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  INTO dbo.Gloves
  FROM Production.ProductModel
 WHERE ProductModelID IN (3, 4);


/* INCORRECT */
USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  FROM Production.ProductModel
 WHERE ProductModelID NOT IN (3, 4)
 ORDER BY Name
 UNION
SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  FROM dbo.Gloves;


/* CORRECT */
USE AdventureWorks2012;

SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  FROM Production.ProductModel
 WHERE ProductModelID NOT IN (3, 4)
 UNION
SELECT ProductModelID, Name
  FROM dbo.Gloves
 ORDER BY Name;

Q. Using UNION of three SELECT statements to show the effects of ALL and parentheses

The following examples use UNION to combine the results of three tables that all have the same 5 rows of data. The first example uses UNION ALL to show the duplicated records, and returns all 15 rows. The second example uses UNION without ALL to eliminate the duplicate rows from the combined results of the three SELECT statements, and returns 5 rows.

The third example uses ALL with the first UNION and parentheses enclose the second UNION that is not using ALL. The second UNION is processed first because it is in parentheses, and returns 5 rows because the ALL option is not used and the duplicates are removed. These 5 rows are combined with the results of the first SELECT by using the UNION ALL keywords. This does not remove the duplicates between the two sets of 5 rows. The final result has 10 rows.

USE AdventureWorks2012;

IF OBJECT_ID ('dbo.EmployeeOne', 'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE dbo.EmployeeOne;

IF OBJECT_ID ('dbo.EmployeeTwo', 'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE dbo.EmployeeTwo;

IF OBJECT_ID ('dbo.EmployeeThree', 'U') IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE dbo.EmployeeThree;


SELECT pp.LastName, pp.FirstName, e.JobTitle
  INTO dbo.EmployeeOne
  FROM Person.Person AS pp JOIN HumanResources.Employee AS e
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = pp.BusinessEntityID
 WHERE LastName = 'Johnson';

SELECT pp.LastName, pp.FirstName, e.JobTitle
  INTO dbo.EmployeeTwo
  FROM Person.Person AS pp JOIN HumanResources.Employee AS e
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = pp.BusinessEntityID
 WHERE LastName = 'Johnson';

SELECT pp.LastName, pp.FirstName, e.JobTitle
  INTO dbo.EmployeeThree
  FROM Person.Person AS pp JOIN HumanResources.Employee AS e
    ON e.BusinessEntityID = pp.BusinessEntityID
 WHERE LastName = 'Johnson';

-- Union ALL
SELECT LastName, FirstName, JobTitle
  FROM dbo.EmployeeOne
 UNION ALL
SELECT LastName, FirstName ,JobTitle
  FROM dbo.EmployeeTwo
 UNION ALL
SELECT LastName, FirstName,JobTitle
  FROM dbo.EmployeeThree;


SELECT LastName, FirstName,JobTitle
  FROM dbo.EmployeeOne
 UNION
SELECT LastName, FirstName, JobTitle
  FROM dbo.EmployeeTwo
 UNION
SELECT LastName, FirstName, JobTitle
  FROM dbo.EmployeeThree;


SELECT LastName, FirstName,JobTitle
  FROM dbo.EmployeeOne
UNION ALL
(
    SELECT LastName, FirstName, JobTitle
      FROM dbo.EmployeeTwo
     UNION
    SELECT LastName, FirstName, JobTitle
      FROM dbo.EmployeeThree
);

See Also